Edge International

Governance in a Law Firm: Poisoned Chalice or Opportunity?

Yarman J. Vachha

I have recently done much work in assisting law firms to develop their governance structures. What I see are many common traits and misconceptions. It is no wonder that law firms are, more often than not, poorly managed, failing to maximise their potential due to poor governance or lack thereof. Many of the larger international law firms have recognised the opportunity to maximise efficiencies and have built sound structures, strategies and teams to improve governance. Small- and medium-sized practices are still grappling with this, though some are more advanced than others in recognising that a strong governance structure will make them much more efficient and profitable in the long run.

The most common trait that I see is that lawyers want to be professional managers but are generally ill-equipped and inexperienced to perform these functions without proper guidance. There is also often a tendency, partly driven by ego and/or lack of trust, of not being willing to let go. There is often an ill-conceived view that the operational and administrative functions of running a legal business “can’t be that difficult!” so why spend money on these activities? This is false logic in my view, as the time spent by lawyers inefficiently muddling through these functions detracts from fee-earning work which adds much more to the bottom line of the firm than do operational activities.

Let’s briefly examine the common traits that I have seen in setting up governance structures within law firms:

  1. Often there is no clear distinction between the responsibility of a management committee (MC) and an executive committee (EC). In firms where there are two committees, there is often confusion and much overlap between the day-to-day management of the firm and the strategic direction of the firm.
  2. In firms where there is only an MC, all members of the MC want to get involved in every single decision the firm makes, and often there is a tendency to second-guess the decisions of the managing partner (MP). Even some of the smallest decisions which have no significant impact on the direction of the firm are discussed to the minutest details. This is just a “time suck” for everyone concerned, as every decision ends up being made “by committee”. This is highly inefficient and reflects a lack of long-term vision and sound governance structure.
  3. Partner egos often play a big part in running the firm. As most firms are partnerships, the management of the firm is only as strong as the support received from its partners. Hence, at times senior management positions become “popularity contests” rather than being based on what is right for the firm. Often the elected or appointed MP or MC is not left to get on with what they have been appointed to do, as the entire partnership wants a “say” in every decision. Again, in my view, this culture is partially due to a lack of established governance structures.
  4. Competing interests of the various practice / industry sectors often have a significant bearing on the strategy and direction of the firm. For example, if there is a particularly strong individual in a practice group who is a rainmaker, it often means that the direction of the firm will gravitate towards the needs of that practice group. This is not future-building, as personnel and markets change; hence, there is no long-term plan or stability being built into the direction of the firm. Again, this is reflective of poor governance.
  5. I believe many firms are not sufficiently focused on what they are trying to achieve. They have a vague idea of the direction they would like to take but often this is akin to having a scatter-gun approach to a wide target, with no clear direction or purpose. Therefore, I always stress to my clients that they need to have a “laser-like focus” on what they’re trying to achieve, and this focus needs to be directional, with alternatives for changing markets, clear budgetary strategies and a clear succession plan.

What firms should be doing with governance structures to set and achieve their strategies and manage on a day-to-day basis.

  1. The very first thing the firm should consider is to separate the supervisory and high-level direction of the firm from the day-to-day management. If the firm is big enough, it should have an executive committee (EC) that looks at the high-level strategic aspects of the firm, and the committee should be client-facing rather than internally focused. The day-to-day operational management of the firm should be entirely the responsibility of an MC and/or the chief operating officer (COO) and their team. The MC, in my opinion, should be headed by the COO, should be a sub-committee of the EC and should report to the EC periodically on the operational aspects of running the firm.
  2. There is not much that can be done about the egos of partners and the fact that rainmakers often forge the direction of a firm. However, this does not future-proof the firm. It is important that the EC work to change the culture so that it is all-inclusive and takes into account changing markets and economies, and has an eye on succession planning. Many firms are vulnerable to losing teams to competitors. Such eventualities should feature in the strategic planning of the firm, and ample safeguards should be instituted to protect the goodwill that has been built and safeguard the legacy of the firm for the future. This is only achieved through a strong governance structure that includes appropriate checks and balances.
  3. Finally, it is very important that a particular focus of the firm’s governance be to establish a very clear vision of what it is trying to achieve and how it is going to get there. A great way of doing this is by doing periodic SWOT analysis and continual evaluation to determine whether the direction of the firm is still relevant. This is particularly important in the current disruptive market environment. In my view, a governance structure that is nimble is of paramount importance in this day and age. Firms can no longer make decisions by “committee” and “compromise” to try and appease requirements of all the partners in the business, as this utopian dream is not applicable in a very fast-paced market and industry.

In conclusion, what I have said above is not only applicable to large- and medium-sized firms: it applies to small practitioners as well. The advice that I have provided needs to be adapted to suit the purpose of the individual firm, no matter what its size. The bottom line for good governance is a clear separation between “church and state” – i.e., a distinction between what is strategic and what is operational, a focused vision for what is best for the firm and a structure that is nimble in its decision-making.

To answer the question as to whether governance of a law firm is a “poisoned chalice” or an “opportunity”? Well, it all depends on whether the firm is willing to run itself as a well-managed business or wants to be a collection of independent contractors pulling in different directions. I believe the future of successful law firms lies in the former approach.

The Cultural Lenses through which We Examine Law Firms

Gerry Riskin

Cultural differences define and influence every aspect of law firms’ operations, reputations and financial success. Describing a law firm’s culture is difficult, even for people who know the organization intimately. When asked to describe a culture, people typically resort to words like “collegial” or “democratic.” While terms like this may convey a general sense of a culture, greater definition is necessary to begin to clearly differentiate various law firms’ cultures, and use knowledge of those cultures to contribute to the management of the firms.

We have created and evolved a “Law Firm Cultural Assessment,” designed to recognize discrete differences among individual law firms and provide a more precise vocabulary to describe what those differences represent. Those differences can be be examined through these four lenses:

  • Collegiality: The manner in which people within a law firm deal with each other.
  • Strategic Focus: The degree to which the firm has a clear identity, both to itself and in relation to other firms.
  • Governance: The manner in which the firm deals with its people, and the way that its lawyers and staff deal with the firm.
  • Values: The belief systems that represent the collective aspirations of the members of the firm.

Details about law firm culture

Each lens examines a number of components, some of which are more complex than others. In fact, the comparative weight of these factors in the make-up of a culture becomes a feature of that culture.

1. Collegiality

  • Group collaboration – the ability and willingness of groups (practice groups, offices, client service teams, etc.) to work together.
  • Individual collaboration – the ability and willingness of individual lawyers to voluntarily work together on client matters.
  • Egalitarianism – the willingness of lawyers to support actions of others that are in the best interest of a client or the firm but may not be in the lawyer’s own immediate best interests.
  • Social interaction – the degree to which firm lawyers seek out opportunities to participate together in social situations.
  • Deviation – the degree to which behaviour in violation of firm mores is accepted.
  • Generationalism – the degree to which the firm’s value systems, approaches and vision differ according to age.

2. Strategic Focus

  • Horizon – the relative importance of short- and long-term implications in decision-making.
  • Ambition – the importance placed on maintaining and improving the firm’s reputation and recognition.
  • Execution – the importance placed on meeting goals and fulfilling expectations.
  • Vision – the importance placed on conveying a clear picture of the future.
  • Self-image – the importance placed on having an accurate and positive perception of the way the firm is viewed by outsiders.
  • Confidence – the confidence that members of the firm express as an institution in the accuracy of their vision and the correctness of their decisions.

3. Governance

  • Decision-making – the methods employed by the firm in reaching decisions.
  • Structure – the degree of institutional involvement in the management of individual lawyers’ practices.
  • Risk aversion – the firm’s willingness to accept risk in return for appropriate reward.
  • Communications – the degree to which lawyers are informed about the firm’s activities and issues.
  • Expectations – the degree to which lawyers and staff members have a clear understanding of what the firm expects from them.
  • Motivation – the firm’s ability to influence behaviour.

4. Values

  • Work ethic – the importance placed on how hard lawyers work in terms of time spent and hours produced.
  • Meritocracy – the degree to which personal performance is rewarded in relation to overall firm performance.
  • Responsibility – the level of control lawyers have over their client relationships.
  • Client focus – the balance of the firm’s interests compared to client’s interests.
  • Continuous improvement – the importance placed on the growth of lawyers’ knowledge and capabilities.
  • Trust – the degree of confidence by an individual that peers will not take actions adverse to that individual’s interests.

Many firms for whom we do strategic assignments incorporate a cultural assessment into the process. Some firms choose to explore their cultures on a stand-alone basis and follow up that assessment with action plans to fine-tune their cultures.

If you would like to discuss your own firm’s culture, write to us at: culture@edge-international.com

Matching Authority and Responsibility

Nick Jarrett-Kerr

Many law firms remain acutely political organizations with much of the firm’s decision-making having to run the gamut of opinion-seeking, back-scratching and adroit manoeuvring before the management team can make significant progress. It has long been recognised that the extreme consensus model (whereby every major decision gets delayed until the achievement of positive ratification) is a highly inefficient way of running a business. There are many stories of how sensible and timely decisions have been delayed by several months because of the need to get the reluctant partnership in line. In some cases I have observed that the firm’s partners had forgotten that the governance structure of the firm in fact granted some fairly explicit powers and authorities for the leadership team to manage the firm and were resisting all attempts to implement decisions by demanding endless discussion on every issue – the way things have always been done. There are clearly still firms where the unwritten rules of the organization seem to be trumping the well documented governance arrangements – firms where the monkeys appear to be running the zoo.

In contrast, I can think of several other firms where the managing partners and the management boards or committees have tried to manage the firm by force of personality and the goodwill of the partnership, but without any explicit rules, provisions or authorities.

A balance is needed, and in achieving the right checks and balances between the two extremes of management anarchy and despotic rule, I suggest three checks.

  1. The first check is to ensure that the firm’s constitutional documents reflect the actuality. It has often been said that every firm has two organisational structures – the formal codified one and the unwritten version in practice. The governance framework of many firms often starts with some initial provisions in the partnership deed or members agreement, and then develops through working practices, resolutions and protocols agreed or simply emerging over the years. Sometimes, the provisions in force vary greatly from actual working practices, and at times the written provisions contradict each other. Regular updating and consolidation reduces muddle and helps to identify gaps and outmoded provisions.
  2. The second check is to diagnose if the governance framework is ‘fit for purpose,’ both to ensure effective and efficient operations and to enable the management team to lead the firm through the difficult decisions which may be necessary during both good and bad times. Does the governance framework operate well in promoting performance, building value and protecting against risk? Does it allow an appropriate amount of decision-making authority? Does it give the management team the power to make merger approaches, for instance? More contentiously, is the management team empowered to make partner redundancies as well as staff redundancies and, if not, should it be able to achieve this? Firms should also make some attempt to ensure that their management structures accord with best practice principles. As part of this check, it is sensible to examine how the firm’s governance compares with ‘best practice’ models or with peers.
  3. The third check is to make sure that everyone in the firm understands and accepts the various management roles and responsibilities. All partners need to know where they stand, what is expected of them, and what they might expect from the management structure. It is difficult to hold partners and managers to account at the best of times and well nigh impossible if the rules of engagement are vague or wishy-washy.

Reliance on the goodwill and compliant nature of partners is not enough to guarantee a high performing firm. Firms with no enforceable rules or discipline and no system of accountability will not fare well in difficult times. To paraphrase Eric Fromm (Escape from Freedom Rinehart 1941), true freedom is not the absence of structure but rather a clear structure which enables partners to work within established parameters in an autonomous and creative way. Conversely, decision-making can become a worse nightmare if there is no clear governance structure, or where there is a mismatch between authority and responsibility.